These are those vehicles that work with the help of Electricity, not with the fuel. These have large batteries fitted inside the vehicle that helps the vehicle to work properly. The battery needs to charge properly from time to time. These vehicles are eco-friendly as they do not produce pollution particles and are very eco-friendly.
It can use one or more Electric motors or traction motion which can help the vehicle to work or run properly.
There are different types of electric vehicles which are introducing nowadays. These are electric bikes, electric cars, Electric rails, Underwater vessels. This is not only limited to these only but the new vehicle is also introducing like Electric aircraft and electric spacecraft.
The introduction of Electric vehicles first came in the mid-19th century.
The electric vehicles are expected to increase from 2 % of the global share in 2016 to 22 % in 2030. And many industries are working to make these estimates a reality.
The largest manufacturer of the electric vehicle is ‘Honda’.
There are also various types of Electric vehicles available. Mainly there are 3 types of Electric vehicles. These are: –
- Battery Electric vehicles (BEV):
This is a very simple and largely used type of electric vehicle. It runs with the help of Large batteries which the person needs to charge with the help of electricity. It gives very good mileage. It an cover a very large distance after fully charging the battery. It does not require an engine. It is rechargeable which can be charged again.
- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV):
It is the type of vehicle which uses both electricity as well as Fuel. It is charged with the use of Plug-in technology. This can easily run up to 1-2 miles before the gasoline engine turns on. It can be used as an alternate when the fuel is not available. But with electric power, the speed of the vehicle generally slows down.
- Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV):
This is the type of vehicle where both the electricity and the fuel can be used. It is different than that of Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles is because it can create energy on its own. The energy can be created with the help of heat generated by the brakes of the vehicle. All the heat energy gets converted into electric energy.
These were some types of Electric vehicles. It includes Electric vehicles as well as semi-electric vehicles.
Largest Electric vehicles Present around the world:
- The largest Electric Truck (Class 8 and Tesla semi) Rocklin is in California.
- There is A Maglevs train which is in Daejeon, South Korea.
- An electric trolley bus in sao Paulo, brazil.
- An E-bike in Manhattan, New York
- A Spanish make an electric scooter, Tarot Muvi.
- The electric, solar-powered aircraft, solar impulse 2 successfully circumnavigated the globe.
- An electric locomotive of the Shatabdi Express in India.
- BYD K9, a battery-electric bus with onboard Life PO4 battery.
- The US-manufactured electric car, Tesla Model 3
- The electric tram in Vienna, Austria
- There are many Other Electric vehicles are also available. These are rapidly increasing in number and today these are in lakhs.
Working of Electric Vehicles:
It is not very difficult to understand how electric vehicles work. To understand the working of electric vehicles you need to have a few pieces of knowledge about mechanical engineering. But I will show you the working in a very simple language. so that you can easily understand the working of the Electric car.
Parts of Electric Car:
The battery is a very important part of an Electric vehicle. It is replaced with the fuel engine with the existing vehicle. The battery helps in storing the electric energy in the car and then using that energy in running that car. It is a very new part of the vehicles. It is a very important part of Electric vehicles. The batteries used are rechargeable that is it can be charged again when the existing power gets empty. The subparts of the battery are Lead-acid, nicd, nickel-metal hydride, lithium-ion, li-on polymer, zinc-air, molten salt Etc.
- Onboard charger
This is the part of the vehicle which is directly connected to the battery. Onboard chargers help in charging the battery. It has a plug-in slot with the help of which the battery can be charged. It handles by converting the AC power into DC energy so that the power can be stored in the battery. The other thing is that the onboard charger is computer controlled and the charge rate adjusts as the battery gets charged.
A transmission is that part of the vehicle which allows the gear ration between the engine and the drive wheels to change as the car speeds up and slows down. Transmission is continuously variable. Which means it keeps on changing. It works by disconnecting the power flow between the engine’s input shaft and transmission.
- charge port
It is a wired port which allows the power to transfer. This charging port in the cars is used to connect with the charger. It is very necessary to transfer power.
- Traction battery pack
This is a lithium-ion battery and used as a secondary battery. This battery is used when the main electric battery is not usable. It is a frequently deep cycled and require a fast charging rate for use usually within 24 hours. These are generally used for industrial vehicles. These batteries are specifically designed with a high forklift, electric golf carts, riding floor scrubbers, electric motorcycles, electric cars, trucks, vans, and other electric vehicles.
- Thermal system
In the thermal system, heat is produced by the combustion engine in conventional vehicles or by the electric vehicle components. This heat is absorbed in the heat source by the coolant circulating in the cooling circuit and dissipated at the heat sink. In simple words, it is used to maintain the temperature of the vehicle. It prevents the vehicle from increasing the heat.
- DC/ MC Converter
It is an Electromechanical device that converts a source of direct current from one voltage level to another. Power levels range from very low to very high. It is done by passing through a “switching element”. This turns the signal into a square wave. The wave then passes through another filter, which turns it back into a DC signal of the appropriate voltage necessary.
- Power electronics controller
It is a single-phase AC-AC converter is a converter which converts from a fixed AC input voltage into a variable AC output voltage with the desired frequency. The power electronics controller is also used in practical circuits like light dimmer circuits, speed controls of induction motors and traction motor control Etc.
- Electric traction motor
It is also a type of electric motor. It is used to make rotation torque on a machine. It is usually changed into a straight-line motion. It is nowadays used in electric rail vehicles and locomotives.
- Motor controller
It is generally used to improve the mechanical performance of the car. There are many refined controllers are available which are capable of greater accuracy and gives higher efficiency. It also helps the monitor and regulates all the key performance indications such as vehicle operator, motor, battery, and accelerator pedal.
- Electric engine
This is the electric engine it is not the same as that of the gasoline engine. It has only one moving part. It is a very reliable source of motive power. These are structured to use AC or DC power current. They are very commonly used and these tend to suffer from less mechanical wear and tear. It is a more sophisticated motor controller. Choosing an electric engine depends on the vehicle’s voltage system.
Process of the working:
- The electric vehicle works with help of Induction motor. There are two parts of the induction motor those are Stator and Rotor. The stator is given 3 phase AC power. In the coil, this power rotates with the help of Rotating Magnetic Field. Then this magnetic field includes current.
- The rotator motor always stays behind RMF Speed. The speed of the induction motor depends on AC power. The frequency of the motor decides the speed of the vehicle.
- The speed range of the motor can be between 0-18000 RPM.
- The motor is related to the tires with the help of Transmission. Transmission helps in controlling the speed range between 2000-4000 RPM.
- An internal combustion engine like that of the induction motor is not self-started.
- The difference in Normal engine and the induction motor are wight 180 kg – 31.8 kg, Power 140 Kw – 270 Kw and power/weight is 0.8Kw/kg – 8.5 kW/kg, respectively.
- The DC power is also converted into AC power for this, an inverter is used.
The introduction of electric vehicles has brought many benefits to it. It is introduced because it is better than the vehicle which works with fuel.
Electric vehicles are very environment-friendly. It produces less harmful chemicals than that of an internal combustion engine which produces more harmful chemicals, which can be very dangerous for the environment. These vehicles are also called as green vehicles or eco-friendly vehicles. To protect the environment is becoming very necessary nowadays as there is an immense increase in harmful chemicals in the environment. This is a very good step in introducing electric vehicles.
- No pollution
Pollution is increasing day by day which is very harmful to all living beings. The main chemicals included in the pollution are Sulphur and nitrogen oxide which is no doubt is very dangerous. So, to solve this problem electric vehicles can prove very beneficial in this area. Electric vehicles do not produce this type of chemical. It is a very good advantage of using electric vehicles.
- Fuel is not used
As you know by the name “Electric vehicles”. It clearly shows that it does not use any type of fuel to run, but Electricity. There are large batteries inserted in the electric vehicles which the essence of the electric vehicles. You need to charge those electric batteries with electricity and after that, you will be able to run the vehicle with the help of batteries. It prevents the problems that occur with fuel.
- Prices will reduce
The prices of the electric vehicles will tremendously reduce as it will be able to run on electricity and it will not use very expensive fuel. The vehicle owner does not have to buy that expensive fuel. And the manufacturing of the electric vehicles will also reduce due to non-usage of fuel engines. Fuel engines make the vehicle very expensive and, in this case, there will be no need for fuel engines.
- Can travel long-distance easily
By charging electric vehicles you will be able to travel long distances easily, you just need to charge the batteries once and you will get rid of the chaos of buying the fuel. The batteries have a very large capacity to make the car travel for a very long distance. It can cover up to 100 kilometers with 15 kWh. Which is a very large capacity.
- Beneficial for health
It is very beneficial for health as due to harmful gasses emitted by the fuel using vehicles affects the health of people very dangerously. Due to these gases, many types of diseases are becoming very common like asthma, lung diseases, emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Etc. Some of these diseases are still not discovered and the medications of these diseases are not available. But with the electric vehicles, these diseases can be prevented and the health of the people can be easily improved.
- Renewable energy
The energy used is renewable, that is, Electricity. This is renewable energy which is never going to end. Other vehicles use fuel which is in a very limited amount and does not available much so it is a very high need to save the fuel for other purposes. And the electricity used in electric vehicles is never going to extinct. So, this is a better idea to use renewable energy than non-renewable energy.
- Energy saving
With the help of Electric vehicles, a very huge amount of energy can be saved and this energy can be used for other purposes. It is due to a limited amount of fuel available and it takes thousands of years in the making process of this energy. And the electrical energy used in electric vehicles can be built very easily.
- Improved technology
The technology used in Electric vehicles is very improved and efficient. Now with the motive of making electric vehicles, the technology will be tremendously improved and the technology sector will also improve. The various industries involved in making a car will be changed tremendously in the technology sector. As improved technology is the future of the world and this is the next step in improving the technology.
There are various types of pollution the one type of harmful chemicals we have discussed earlier. Another type of pollution is noise pollution. It is creating harms in the human body like hearing impairment, tinnitus, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, annoyance, and sleep disturbance and many more. In electric cars, this problem can be fully sorted out as these electric cars are noise-free. It does not create any noise which is a very good feature.
- Change in the Automobile industry
With the introduction of the Automobile industry, the future and the face of the automobile industry will change drastically. Vehicles will change as well as many infrastructural developments will happen. Many Electric pumps will be built to charge the Electric cars. This is a very huge step in technological development.
- High performance
The electric cars give a high performance which is what people want. Nowadays people are becoming more conscious of their needs. And they need high performance and they are also ready to spend more on vehicles to have high performance. So, electric cars are coming with high performance. In every area, it is better than fuel vehicles.
It is very safer than that of Fuel cars. Today the accident rates are very high and the vehicles are not safe. So, the electric vehicles are providing more safety measures so that the accident rates can bring down.
Electric vehicles are very easy to control as they are very light in weight. Anyone can easily control the vehicle and drive it. It is very suitable for people who are afraid of driving and cannot easily drive. And because of more safety measures provided in the Electric vehicles is another reason.
Everything comes with its benefits and disadvantages too. Electric vehicles also have some disadvantages. These are: –
- Power supply
There is a very huge problem with power supply in various countries around the world. There is a very advanced technology and infrastructure is needed to make renewable energy or electricity. So, this is a very big hurdle and due to this many countries are not able to fully let electric vehicles come in force. It will take many years to properly overcome this problem and make the energy available for everyone to use these electric vehicles.
It is a very big Chao to regularly charge the batteries. As compared to fuel, it takes only a few minutes to fill the fuel in the vehicle tank but in the case of electric vehicles, it can take hours to fully charge the batteries. Some people might not have so much time to spend there this much amount of time in charging the batteries. This is a very big problem coming in the way with the Electric vehicles.
- Need large batteries
As electric vehicles run on electricity, therefore, it needs a very large size of batteries which can be very expensive for the buyers and it can dangerously affect their pocket. Some people might not want to spend this much amount of money on these batteries.
Due to large batteries, this vehicle becomes very heavy which is very difficult for some people to handle. The heaviness of vehicle is not desirable for some people and that’s why they can resist in buying and using the Electric vehicles. It can reduce the users of electric vehicles.
- Mindset of people
As electric cars are recently introduced therefore it will be difficult in the beginning to change the mindset of people and make them aware of its advantages. As at the starting point many people resist change, they do not want to change their habits and will continuously prefer to use fuel cars only.
- Less distance
The distance covered in the Electric vehicle is less than that of fuel vehicles. It is a very big problem coming in the way of the future of electric vehicles. Firstly, it took a long time to charge the battery and even after charging it covers very little distance. It is estimated that charging in the electric pump stations can take up to 1 hour to fully charge the vehicles.
Due to latest technology the auto mobile companies can increase their price of vehicles. They are also providing various other facilities also like more safety features, light weight, environment friendly, Etc. All these latest features can affect the pocket of middle-class people. So, there is a chance of increase in price.
There are coming many difficulties in the introduction of Electric cars but it is very necessary for many areas. So, it is high time that we should cope up with the problems and make electric cars a reality and increase the usage of these vehicles.
The no. of Electric vehicles is increasing the day by day. The automobile industry is working very positively and working hard to make this a huge success.